The types of information security documents are-
A policy is typically a document that outlines specific requirements or rules that must be met. In the information/network security realm, policies are usually point-specific, covering a single area.
For example, an “Acceptable Use” policy would cover the rules and regulations for appropriate use of the computing facilities.
A standard is typically a collection of system-specific or procedural-specific requirements that must be met by everyone.
For example, you might have a standard that describes how to harden a Windows 8.1 workstation for placement on an external (DMZ) network. People must follow this standard exactly if they wish to install a Windows 8.1 workstation on an external network segment. In addition, a standard can be a technology selection, e.g. Company Name uses Tenable SecurityCenter for continuous monitoring, and supporting policies and procedures define how it is used.
Procedures are specific instructions (ordered tasks) for performing some function or action. Procedures are of a somewhat short duration, are mandatory and they reflect organizational change or environmental changes. Example: To change your password, type your old password, then a front slash and then your new password.
A guideline is typically a collection of system specific or procedural specific “suggestions” for best practice. They are not requirements to be met but are strongly recommended. Effective security policies make frequent references to standards and guidelines that exist within an organization.
e.g. The NIST guideline documents for Digital Authentication